» » Butterfly in an Andene valley : Diversity & altitudinal distribution (Cosnipata, Cuzco, S. Peru)

Butterfly in an Andene valley : Diversity & altitudinal distribution (Cosnipata, Cuzco, S. Peru)

La vallée du Cosnipata descend vers l'Amazonie et le Madre de Dios : confluent juste au Nord de Pilcopata

La vallée du Cosnipata descend vers l’Amazonie et le Madre de Dios : confluent juste au Nord de Pilcopata

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Butterfly diversity in an Andene valley – Cosnipata (Kosñipata), Cuzco, S. Peru

by

Daniel Lacomme & Bruce Purser, Association des Lépidoptéristes de France

Morpho aurora isidorssoni BLANDIN, 2006 (exemplaire photographié mort). Valle?e du Cosnipata, 1000 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Morpho aurora isidorssoni BLANDIN, 2006 (exemplaire photographié mort). Vallée du Cosnipata, 1000 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Le sommet de Tres Cruces (3650 m) vu depuis Pilcopata (novembre 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Le sommet de Tres Cruces (3650 m) vu depuis Pilcopata (novembre 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Butterfly species are related to an altitudinal gradient ranging from 500 to 3600 meters. Although the taxonomic list is not finalised, it is clear that species and sub-species of many genera change with temperature, humidity and vegetation, conditioned by the altitudinal gradient. The authors limit their summary to four genera – Morpho, Catasticta, Perisama and Pedaliodes.

The Cosnipata Valley, a tributary of the Madre de Dios, flows towards the NE and thus receives abundant humidity from the Amazon Basin. This humidity is reflected in the luxuriant vegetation which grades, almost without break, from lowland forest, through pre-montagne to high mountain « cloud forest », each biome having its particular butterfly and moth fauna. Virtually all collecting has been carried out along a gravel road which descends the valley. Study made at specific altitudes indicates important local variations in butterfly diversity which seem to be conditioned by local variations in humidity ; where the road crosses a major tributary, humidity is higher and butterflies more abundant, but where the road climbs steep slopes situated high above local streams, lower humidities coincide with markedly fewer butterflies. This tendency is confirmed by the relative abundance of butterflies along the banks of the Cosnipata, their original habitat prior to the construction of the nearby road.

The Genus Morpho (FABRICIUS, 1807) in the Cosnipata Valley

Morpho amphitryon azurita DUCHÊNE & BLANDIN,  2009. San Pedro, 1600 m, vallée du Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou).

Morpho amphitryon azurita DUCHÊNE & BLANDIN, 2009. San Pedro, 1600 m, vallée du Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou).

The genus Morpho (Nymphalidae) is one of the most interesting groups to relate to altitudinal distribution, ranging from the Amazonian plain to about 3000 m. Fourteen species occur in the Cosnipata Valley, including one endemic species and 5 endemic sub-species.

In addition to the close observation of the endemic M. absoloni and its exceptionally rare female (described in 1983), is the fact that there exists an altitudinal relay between species belonging to the same sub-genus. Thus, certain species of the same group are replaced by others, according to altitude :

M. telemachusM. amphitryon (sub-genus Iphimedeia)

M. marcusM. zephyritisM. sulkowskyi (sub-genus Cytheritis)

M. absoloniM. aurora (sub-genus Balakowskyna)

M. menelaus zischkaiM. godarti assarpai (via 2 or 3 successive forms), (sub-genus Grasseia)

Morpho zephyritis BUTLER, 1873 mâle. Kosñipata, 650 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Morpho zephyritis BUTLER, 1873 mâle. Kosñipata, 650 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Biotope de Morpho sulkowskyi, 2800 m, Valle?e du Kosñipata (Cuzco, Pérou). Photo : Bruce Purser

Biotope de Morpho sulkowskyi, 2800 m, Valle?e du Kosñipata (Cuzco, Pérou). Photo : Bruce Purser

Morpho sulkowskyi lympharis BUTLER, 1873. Kosñipata, 2800 m (Pérou), novembre 2008. Photo : B. Purser

Morpho sulkowskyi lympharis BUTLER, 1873. Kosñipata, 2800 m (Pérou), novembre 2008. Photo : B. Purser

Morpho achilles phokylides FRUHSTORFER, 1912. Pilcopata, Kosñipata, 650 m  (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Morpho achilles phokylides FRUHSTORFER, 1912. Pilcopata, Kosñipata, 650 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Concerning M. godarti assarpai, a clear change in morphology affects the same sub-species ; convergent with M. menelaus on the Amazon plain, close to M. godarti didius at middle altitudes, it resembles M. godarti godarti towards 1500 m – its upper limit. This morphological variation relating to altitude, within a given species, remains to be confirmed and other equivalents should be established.

Morpho godartii assarpai RO?BER,1903. Valle?e du Cosnipata, 600 m, mai  2009. Photo : B. Purser

Morpho godartii assarpai RÖBER,1903. Vallée du Cosnipata, 600 m, mai 2009. Photo : B. Purser

Morpho absoloni MAY, 1924, ma?le. Chontachaka, 1000 m. Valle?e du Cosnipata (Cuzco), Pérou, mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Morpho absoloni MAY, 1924, mâle. Chontachaka, 1000 m. Vallée du Cosnipata (Cuzco), Pérou, mai 2009. Photo : Bruce Purser

Photos of two living rare species have been made : M. cisseis and M. absoloni. Finally, the flight season at low altitude (200 – 1000 m) are grouped (May – July) while middle and high altitude species fly during the months of September to December.

Morpho cisseis cabrera BLANDIN & LAMAS, 2006.  Pilcopata 650 m, Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : B. Purser

Morpho cisseis cabrera BLANDIN & LAMAS, 2006. Pilcopata 650 m, Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : B. Purser

The Genus Morpho (FABRICIUS, 1807) in the Cosnipata Valley (in order of classification)
SpeciesSubgenusAuthorRange in elevation
Morpho telemachus foucheriIphimedeiaLE MOULT, 1926Low to middle mountain
Morpho amphitryon azuritaIphimedeiaDUCHÊNE & BLANDIN, 2009Middle & high mountain
Morpho cisseis cabreraIphimedeiaBLANDIN & LAMAS, 2006Plain & foothills
Morpho marcusCytheritisSCHALLER,1785Plain & foothills
Morpho zephyritisCytheritisBUTLER, 1873Foothills, middle mountain
Morpho sulkowskyi lympharis
CytheritisBUTLER, 1873High mountain
Morpho aurora isidorssoniBalakowskyna
BLANDIN, 2006Middle & high mountain
Morpho absoloniBalakowskynaMAY, 1924Plain & foothills
Morpho rhetenor telloCypritisBLANDIN, 2008Plain & foothills
Morpho menelaus zischkaiGrasseiaFISCHER, 1962Plain
Morpho godarti assarpaiGrasseiaRÖBER, 1903Plain, foothills, middle mountain
Morpho deidamia grambergiMorphoWEBER, 1944Plain & foothills
Morpho helenor theodorusMorphoFRUHSTORFER, 1907Plain & foothills
Morpho achilles phokylidesMorphoFRUHSTORFER, 1912plain & foothills

Morpho helenor theodorus FRUHSTORFER, 1907. Pilcopata 650 m, Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou), novembre 2008. Photo : Gilles Richard

Morpho helenor theodorus FRUHSTORFER, 1907. Pilcopata 650 m, Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou), novembre 2008. Photo : Gilles Richard

Morpho deidamia grambergi WEBER, 1944, ma?le. Pilcopata 650 m, Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : B. Purser

Morpho deidamia grambergi WEBER, 1944, mâle. Pilcopata 650 m, Cosnipata (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009. Photo : B. Purser

The genus Catasticta, (Pieridae, BUTLER, 1870)

Catasticta reducta boliviana BUTLER, 1896. Kosñipata, 1500 m, bridge 2 km below San Pedro, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta reducta boliviana BUTLER, 1896. Kosñipata, 1500 m, bridge 2 km below San Pedro, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Among the many genera of pierid inhabiting the Cosnipata, we have observed 15 species of Catasticta. The authors are very grateful to Maurizio Bollino for his help in the identification of seven species. According M. Bollino, the area (from Acjanaco down along the road to Pillcopata) hosts no less than 28 species of Catasticta, including a recently described one (Catasticta pillcopata BOLLINO, 2008).

Catasticta sisamnus telasco LUCAS, 1852. Kosñipata, 1220 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta sisamnus telasco LUCAS, 1852. Kosñipata, 1220 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta sisamnus telasco LUCAS, 1852, verso. Kosñipata, 1220 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta sisamnus telasco LUCAS, 1852, verso. Kosñipata, 1220 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta chelidonis HOPFFER, 1874. Kosñipata, 1500 m, bridge 2 km below San Pedro, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta chelidonis HOPFFER, 1874. Kosñipata, 1500 m, bridge 2 km below San Pedro, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta reducta boliviana BUTLER, 1896. Kosñipata, 1800 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 10 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta reducta boliviana BUTLER, 1896. Kosñipata, 1800 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 10 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta reducta boliviana BUTLER, 1896, verso - Kosñipata, 1650 m (Cuzco, Pérou),  23 novembre 2008 : Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta reducta boliviana BUTLER, 1896, verso – Kosñipata, 1650 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 23 novembre 2008 : Photo : Bruce Purser

The genus Catasticta, (Pieridae, BUTLER, 1870) in the Cosnipata Valley
SpeciesAuthorRange in elevation
Catasticta sisamnus telascoLUCAS, 18521200 m
Catasticta chelidonis
HOPFFER, 18741500 m
Catasticta prionerisHOPFFER, 18741500 m
Catasticta reducta bolivianaBUTLER, 18961800 m
Catasticta corcyraFELDER & FELDER, 18591900 m
Catasticta pieris pierisHOPFFER, 18742200 m
Catasticta collinaBROWN, 19392200 m
Catasticta mancoDOUBLEDAY, 18482250 m
Catasticta watkinsi
LATHY & ROSENBERG, 19122300 m
Catasticta aureomaculata
LATHY & ROSENBERG, 19122300 m
Catasticta poujadei lamasiEITSCHBERGER & RACHELI, 19982300 – 2400 m
Catasticta tocaDOUBLEDAY, 18472500 – 2900 m
Catasticta scurra
RÖBER, 19242500 m
Catasticta marcapitaRÖBER, 19092900 m
Catasticta superbaLATHY & ROSENBERG, 19122900 m

Catasticta corcyra FELDER & FELDER, 1859. Kosñipata, 1900 m, creek on road, mountain forest (Nov. 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta corcyra FELDER & FELDER, 1859. Kosñipata, 1900 m, creek on road, mountain forest (Nov. 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta manco DOUBLEDAY, 1848. Kosñipata, 2200 m, cascade & creek, high mountain forest. May, 2009, photo B. H. Purser

Catasticta manco DOUBLEDAY, 1848. Kosñipata, 2200 m, cascade & creek, high mountain forest. May, 2009, photo B. H. Purser

Catasticta manco DOUBLEDAY, 1848. Kosñipata, 2200 m, cascade & creek, high mountain forest (May, 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta manco DOUBLEDAY, 1848. Kosñipata, 2200 m, cascade & creek, high mountain forest (May, 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Creek crossing road , 2200 m : Catasticta lands on edges of these creeks. May, 2008, photo : B. H. Purser

Creek crossing road , 2200 m : Catasticta lands on edges of these creeks. May, 2008, photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta watkinsi LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, 2200 m, Kosñipata, cascade & creek, high mountain forest. May, 2009, photo B. H. Purser

Catasticta watkinsi LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, 2200 m, Kosñipata, cascade & creek, high mountain forest. May, 2009, photo B. H. Purser

Catasticta collina BROWN, 1939, Kosñipata, 2200 m, cascade & creek, high mountain forest. May, 2009, photo B. H. Purser

Catasticta collina BROWN, 1939, Kosñipata, 2200 m, cascade & creek, high mountain forest. May, 2009, photo B. H. Purser

Ranging in altitude from 1200 to 2900 m, the genus attains maximum diversity (7 species) between 2000 and 2500 m where virtually all species are located near small creeks which cross the road (see photo) or along the banks of the Rio Cosnipata. The numerous waterfalls are frequented by Catasticta which fly in the spray and land on wet cliffs or close to running water. Their behaviour is reminiscent of certain species of the Indo-Australian genus Delias. There also exists a remarkable colour convergence between Catasticta and at least two other genera of pierid : Dismorphia niepelti and Leodonta chiriquensis, all three being parapatric between altitudes of 1500 and 2200 m.

Although there does not appear to be any significant altitudinal evolution in colour patterns, the majority of the black and white species, plus the Leodonta and Dismorphia occur below 2000 m, species above that altitude (notably C. collina & C. rileyi) tending to have dark grey dorsal patterns. The majority of species (10) were observed at precise altitudes while the remainder extended over an altitude of 200 to 400 m. The altitudinal distribution of individual species of Catasticta is remarkably limited.

Catasticta scurra RÖBER, 1924. Kosñipata, 2500 m (novembre 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta scurra RÖBER, 1924. Kosñipata, 2500 m (novembre 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Catasticta aureomaculata LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, verso. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2400 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta aureomaculata LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, verso. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2400 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta aureomaculata LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, recto. Kosñipata, 2400 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta aureomaculata LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, recto. Kosñipata, 2400 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta aureomaculata LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, verso. Kosñipata, 2400 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta aureomaculata LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, verso. Kosñipata, 2400 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 27 novembre 2008

Catasticta watkinsi LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2600 m, (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta watkinsi LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2600 m, (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Kosñipata Valley : cascade at 2200 m ; 5 sp. of Catasticta around this waterfall, high mountain forest (May, 2009) Photo : B. H. Purser

Kosñipata Valley : cascade at 2200 m ; 5 sp. of Catasticta around this waterfall, high mountain forest (May, 2009) Photo : B. H. Purser

À gauche et en haut : Catasticta watkinsi LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912. À droite et en-dessous : Catasticta toca DOUBLEDAY, 1847. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2600 m, (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

À gauche et en haut : Catasticta watkinsi LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912. À droite et en-dessous : Catasticta toca DOUBLEDAY, 1847. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2600 m, (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008. Photo : Bruce Purser

Catasticta toca DOUBLEDAY, 1847, recto. Kosñipata, 2600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta toca DOUBLEDAY, 1847, recto. Kosñipata, 2600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta toca DOUBLEDAY, 1847, verso. Kosñipata, 2600 m, (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta toca DOUBLEDAY, 1847, verso. Kosñipata, 2600 m, (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta marcapita RÖBER, 1909, recto. Kosñipata, 2900 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 28 novembre 2008

Catasticta marcapita RÖBER, 1909, recto. Kosñipata, 2900 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 28 novembre 2008

Catasticta marcapita RÖBER, 1909, verso. Kosñipata, 2900 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 28 novembre 2008

Catasticta marcapita RÖBER, 1909, verso. Kosñipata, 2900 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 28 novembre 2008

Catasticta superba LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, recto. Kosñipata, 3000 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta superba LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, recto. Kosñipata, 3000 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta superba LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, verso.  Kosñipata, 3000 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

Catasticta superba LATHY & ROSENBERG, 1912, verso. Kosñipata, 3000 m (Cuzco, Pérou), 17 novembre 2008

The genus Perisama (Nymphalidae, DOUBLEDAY, 1847)

Perisama philinus philinus DOUBLEDAY, 1849. Kosñipata, 2 km below San Pedro, 1500 m, mountain forest (May, 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama philinus philinus DOUBLEDAY, 1849. Kosñipata, 2 km below San Pedro, 1500 m, mountain forest (May, 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

We have observed 10 species of Perisama in the Cosnipata Valley where maximum diversity occurs between 1500 and 1800 m i.e. slightly lower than Catasticta. Six species (alicia, philinus, comnena, hilara, jurinei & tristrigosa plus Diaethria alicia) were flying together at 1500 m, P. calamis fassli extending up to 3000 m where it was associated with Orophila cecidas, a genus which closely resembles Perisama. The following species have been observed :

The genus Perisama (Nymphalidae, DOUBLEDAY, 1847) in Cosnipata Valley
SpeciesAuthorRange in elevation
Perisama tringaGUÉNÉE, 18721200 – 1500 m
Perisama aliciaHEWITSON, 18751200 – 1800 m
Perisama hilaraSALVIN, 18691400 – 1800 m
Perisama philinusDOUBLEDAY, 18491500 – 1800 m
Perisama jurinei jurineiGUÉNÉE, 18721500 – 1800 m
Perisama tristrigosaBUTLER,18731600 m
Perisama comnenaHEWITSON, 18681500 – 2500 m
Perisama clisitheraHEWITSON, 18741800 m
Perisama moroninaRÖBER, 19152400 m
Perisama calamis fassliVIETTE, 19581800 – 2900 m

Perisama frequents gravel roads and abandoned quarries and, although more abundant near the bottoms of humid valleys, is not directly associated with streams and waterfalls. Most species have an altitudinal range of about 1000 m but this seems to vary according to the season, several species (tringa, hilara & jurenei) being considerably lower (500m) in the dry season.

Perisama hilara SALVIN 1869. Kosñipata, San Pedro, 1600 m, mountain forest (November 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama hilara SALVIN 1869. Kosñipata, San Pedro, 1600 m, mountain forest (November 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

There appears to be a faunal change near 1800 m, several species (tringa, philinus, comnena, hilara, jurinei & tristrigosa) occuring below 1800 m, while P. calamis fassli, P. clisithera, P. moronina and Orophila cecidas occur above. This break may be related to the ancient limit of mountain forests (currently 3500 m) which were 1500 – 2000 m lower during the last Glaciation. The three species of Perisama found above 1800 m seem to be limited to southern Peru while those below 1800 m are widely distributed (N. Peru – Ecuador). This difference suggests that the three higher altitude species have had less time to colonise laterally and thus may have evolved more recently.

Perisama calamis fassli VIETTE, 1958. On the right : Orophila diotima cecidas HEWITSON, 1869. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama calamis fassli VIETTE, 1958. On the right : Orophila diotima cecidas HEWITSON, 1869. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama calamis fassli VIETTE, 1958. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama calamis fassli VIETTE, 1958. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama jurinei jurinei GUÉNÉE, 1872. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008) Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama jurinei jurinei GUÉNÉE, 1872. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008) Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama jurinei GUÉNÉE, 1872. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama jurinei jurinei GUÉNÉE, 1872. Kosñipata, road near lodge, 1800 m, mountain forest (Nov. 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

View of road through high mountain forest, Kosñipata, 2500 m. November 2008, photo B. H. Purser

View of road through high mountain forest, Kosñipata, 2500 m. November 2008, photo B. H. Purser

Perisama moronina moronina RÖBER, 1915. Kosñipata, on road near landslide, 2400 m, high mountain forest (May, 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Perisama moronina moronina RÖBER, 1915. Kosñipata, on road near landslide, 2400 m, high mountain forest (May, 2009). Photo : B. H. Purser

Kosñipata : mountain forest at 2500 m, typical habitat for Perisama (November 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Kosñipata : mountain forest at 2500 m, typical habitat for Perisama (November 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

The genus Pedaliodes BUTLER, 1867 (Satyrinae)

En haut : Panyapedaliodes phila phila LAMAS, 2003. Valle?e du Cosnipata, 1600 m. En bas : Pedaliodes phaeinomorpha LAMAS, VILORIA & PYRCZ, 2008. Valle?e du Kosñipata, 1600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009.

En haut : Panyapedaliodes phila phila LAMAS, 2003. Vallée du Cosnipata, 1600 m. En bas : Pedaliodes phaeinomorpha LAMAS, VILORIA & PYRCZ, 2008. Vallée du Kosñipata, 1600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009.

The genus Pedaliodes is endemic to the Andes. Neotropical mountain Pedaliodes may be the most divers genus of butterflies, and is among the least well-studied. LAMAS (2004) lists 246 species of which 98 were described by PYRCZ et AL has recently described 14 species.

Pedaliodes are moderately-sized butterflies whose dorsal surfaces are generally uniformly brown in colour, only the ocelli and occasional patterns on the hind wings permitting field identification.

The Satyrinae, being essentially sedentary in habit, have evolved important phylogenic differentiation conditioned essentially by the deep and complicated valley system which characterises the eastern Andes.

Fifteen species of Pedaliodes (sensu stricto) have been identified in the Cosnipata Valley between about 1000 and the Acjanaco Pass (3650 m). Collecting has enabled the establishment of two or three altitudinal zones, with local overlap and sympatry, relating to vegetal discontinuities due to orientation of the valley and to local variations in humidity due to remoteness from humid, valley floors.

Pedaliodes phrasiclea GROSE-SMITH, 1900. Valle?e du Kosñipata, 1600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes phrasiclea GROSE-SMITH, 1900. Vallée du Kosñipata, 1600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes manis manis C. & R. Felder, 1867. Valle?e du Kosñipata, 1600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes manis manis C. & R. Felder, 1867. Vallée du Kosñipata, 1600 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes hewitsoni, STAUDINGER, 1897. Vallée de Kosñipata, 1800 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes hewitsoni STAUDINGER, 1897. Vallée de Kosñipata, 1800 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes pausia HEWITSON, 1862. Valle?e du Kosñipata, 2100 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009.

Pedaliodes pausia HEWITSON, 1862. Vallée du Kosñipata, 2100 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009.

Among the 19 taxa comprising the following list, 4 are recently described while 3 are currently being defined.

The genus Pedaliodes BUTLER, 1867 (Satyrinae)
SpeciesAuthorElevation
Pedaliodes tucca tuccaTHIEME, 19051450 m
Pedaliodes manis manisGODMAN & SALVIN (1881)1600 m
Pedaliodes phaeinomorphaLAMAS, VILORIA & PYRCZ, 20081600 m
Pedaliodes phrasicleaGROSE-SMITH, 19001600 m
Panyapedaliodes phila philaLAMAS, 20031600 m
Pedaliodes hewitsoniSTAUDINGER, 18971800 m
Antopedaliodes antonia, ssp. under study2100 m
Pedaliodes pausia(HEWITSON, 1862)2100 m
Pedaliodes phrasiclea galaxiasTHIEME, 19052100 m
Pedaliodes peruvianaBUTLER, 18732400 m
Pedaliodes antulla antullaTHIEME, 19052950 m
Pedaliodes molestaSTAUDINGER, 18972950 m
Pedaliodes pheres pheresTHIEME, 19053000 m
Panayapedaliodes drymaea dryamaeaHEWITSON (1858)3000 m
Pedaliodes aurariaTHIEME, 19053200 m
Pedaliodes ackeryiPYRCZ & VILORIA, 20083300 m
Pedaliodes phantasia phantasiaPYRCZ, 20093300 m
Pedaliodes sp. female, under study3350 m
Punapedaliodes flavopunctata flavopunctata(STAUDINGER, 1894)3350 m

Kosñipata Valley : secondary vegetation at 2200 m, adjacent road rich in butterflies (May 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Kosñipata Valley : secondary vegetation at 2200 m, adjacent road rich in butterflies (May 2008). Photo : B. H. Purser

Pedaliodes antulla antulla THIEME, 1905. Valle?e du Kosñipata, 2950 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes antulla antulla THIEME, 1905. Valleée du Kosñipata, 2950 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

En haut : Pedaliodes pheres pheres, THIEME, 1905, 3000 m. En bas : Pedaliodes peruviana, BUTLER, 1873, 2400 m. Vallée du Rio Kosñipata (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

En haut : Pedaliodes pheres pheres THIEME, 1905, 3000 m. En bas : Pedaliodes peruviana BUTLER, 1873, 2400 m. Vallée du Rio Kosñipata (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes auraria THIEME, 1905. Valle?e du Kosñipata, Col d'Acjanaco, 3200 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes auraria THIEME, 1905. Vallée du Kosñipata, Col d’Acjanaco, 3200 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes phantasia phantasia PYRCZ, 2009. Col d'Acjanaco, 3300 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes phantasia phantasia PYRCZ, 2009. Col d’Acjanaco, 3300 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

View eastwards down the Kosñipata Valley, from Acjanaco Col, 3650 m (September 2007). Photo : B. H. Purser

View eastwards down the Kosñipata Valley, from Acjanaco Col, 3650 m (September 2007). Photo : B. H. Purser

En haut : Pedaliodes ackeryi, PYRCZ & VILORIA, 2008 ; Col d'Acjanaco, 3300 m. En bas : Pedaliodes phrasiclea galaxias, THIEME, 1905 ; vallée du Kosñipata, 2100 m.  (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

En haut : Pedaliodes ackeryi PYRCZ & VILORIA, 2008 ; Col d’Acjanaco, 3300 m. En bas : Pedaliodes phrasiclea galaxias THIEME, 1905 ; Kosñipata, 2100 m. (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes sp. Kosñipata, 3350 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

Pedaliodes sp. Kosñipata, 3350 m (Cuzco, Pérou), mai 2009

View eastwards down the Kosñipata Valley (September 2007). Photo : B. H. Purser

View eastwards down the Kosñipata Valley (September 2007). Photo : B. H. Purser

Conclusion

The four genera – Morpho, Catasticta, Perisama & Pedaliodes – change with altitude, this species evolution being typical of many peri-Andene valleys. The considerable number of species which evolve with altitude are probably one of the major factors determining the overall diversity of lepidoptera within the eastern Andes.

A detailed description of the lepidoptera of the Cosnipata Valley will appear in a thematic number of Lépidoptères, the review of the ALF (Association des Lépidoptéristes de France), early 2011.

4 réponses

  1. Maurizio Bollino
    |

    An interesting article, but I found some misidentification of Catasticta (the genus about which I am working for many years):
    photo 4 is not sinapina, but chelidonis
    photo 11 is not collina, but watkinsi
    photo 13 is not tamboensis, but scurra
    photo 14-15 & 16 are not distincta, but aureomaculata
    photo 17 is not rileya, it is watkinsi
    photo 19: 1 watkinsi (top left) plus 3 toca
    photo 20 & 21 are not tomyris barbara but toca

    The area (from Acjanaco down along the road to Pillcopata) hosts no less than 28 species of Catasticta, including a recently described one (Catasticta pillcopata BOLLINO, 2009).

  2. Pequin
    |

    Très intéressant.

    Toujours impressionnant le comportement identique et la morphologie très proche entre les Catasticta andins et les Delias papous.

    Y a t-il eu des écrits sur leur séparation, leur évolution ? …

  3. Tomasz Pyrcz
    |

    Salut,

    Très bien fait, votre compte rendu sur les papillons de Kosnipata. Bravo pour les identifications des Pedaliodes. Impecable ! La derniere espèce, non décrite, est en presse actuellement, son “working name” est P. acjanacoensis LAMAS, VILORIA et PYRCZ. Je serais bien content de pouvoir vous aider à déterminer les autres espèces de la tribu Pronophilini de cette région, ou d’ailleurs. Veuillez bien consulter le site internet du muséum, ci-dessous, y compris la liste complète d’espèces de Pedaliodes d’Acjanaco (Pyrcz et al., 2009).

    Adresse web du muséum : http://www.mzuj.uj.edu.pl

  4. Jean-Marc GAYMAN
    |

    Jean-Claude Petit nous écrit :

    “Concernant “tomyris“, il est extrêmement rare dans cette région, j’en ai attrapé un il y a deux ans, et Maurizio m’en a demandé des photos car il n’en avait jamais vu, bien qu’il ait reçu des milliers de Catasticta de là-bas ; et ce serait la ssp. subtomyris“.

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